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An Introduction to the Divine Service and Its Ceremonies - Moving beyond personalities, programs, and power-point!

A Lutheran Divine Service in Goerlitz

Revelation 7:9-17


+ Being Christ-centered

+ Justification by Grace Through Faith Being Central (Ephesians 2:8,9; Augsburg Confession, Article IV; Small Catechism, Second Article of the Apostles' Creed)

+ An Acknowledgment of God's Holy Presence Among Us (Hebrews 12:18ff; Isaiah 6:1-7; Revelation 4,5), especially the actual presence of Christ's body and blood in His Holy Supper

+ The Effectiveness of God's Word and Sacraments (see Isaiah 55:10-11; Romans 10:17; Titus 3:5; & Augsburg Confession, Article V) in God's own Time

+ The Historically-Received Liturgy of the Lutheran Church (see Augsburg Confession & Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV). Lutherans have not historically understood themselves as a "new church."

+ An understanding that the Divine Service is chiefly what God does for us in the means of grace, and then ours is worship in response to God's initiative in grace (Luke 22:27; Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, 78-81)

+ An assumption of thorough catechesis (instruction) as the path to baptized, communicant membership (Matthew 28:19-20; Acts 2:42; Romans 10:17)

+ Liturgical practice that is indicative of historic Christianity in a genuinely Lutheran way (Matthew 16:13-20; Jude 3; Augsburg Confession, Article VII), and so reflect genuine catholic identity

+ Consistent worship practices which unify the congregation, in all ages and backgrounds, in reverence, joy, and awe and which teach and reflect our heritage in the Lutheran Confessions, the early church fathers, and Holy Scripture

+ Variety which arises from the richness of the various customs of the Church Year calendar and the wealth of orders and occasional rites in the Agenda (liturgical book of special rites).

+ Preaching that is understood not to be "the pastor's message" or a pep talk but a exposition of the biblical text, taken from the lectionary, that applies the law and gospel and is understood as the living voice of the Gospel, where Christ Himself speaks, if the sermon is faithful.

+ The understanding that to be "Spirit-filled" means that the Word of God is taught faithfully and the holy sacraments are administered in fidelity to the Word of Christ, not necessarily a mood, since the Holy Spirit works through the Word and Sacraments. To be "Spirit-filled" is not about "spiritual gifts inventories" or group dynamics or so-called charismatic phenomena by those who major in such things.

J.S. Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach, Lutheran composer

The Lutheran Church is a liturgical church. This means not only that we follow an ordered, regular order of service, but this also means that such liturgy is shaped by what we believe, teach, and confess from Scripture and as summarized in our Lutheran Confessions, the Book of Concord of 1580. This also means that the Word and Sacraments are the core and living center of the Divine Service. It is around these "marks of the church" that we gather each Lord's Day.

The Lutheran Church is a liturgical church to a large degree also because we do not claim to be a new church. Martin Luther did not intend to start a "new church." He sought reform not revolution. Revolution was left to the radical protestants whereas Luther was careful and conservative in reform in accordance with Scripture. Only where a teaching or practice contradicted Scripture was change made. The early Lutheran confessors understood themselves to be both "evangelical" (sola gratia) and "catholic" (teaching the whole and unchanging truth of God).

Understood this way, the historically-received liturgy is much more than a certain artistic aesthetic or style. It is certainly much more than a museum piece. It is not a static object but a living, breathing, organic truth, way of worship, and mystery that is handed down. It isn't then that some are "liturgical people" and others are "non-liturgical people." It is a matter of being baptized into the faith and taught the mysteries of the faith in an ongoing way for the rest of one's life. This takes the whole question out of the realm of "taste" or entertainment or the mood that is generated by various styles of worship nowadays. It is a Christ-centered reality that flows from Him to us where heaven comes down to earth to deliver the gifts of Good Friday and Easter in the Word and the ongoing feast of the Holy Eucharist.

The teaching of God's Word and the gifts of the sacraments pull, shape, and give breath to the liturgy. It is not that the means of grace are added mechanicaly to the liturgy - just plugged-in. Rather we understand that in the Divine Service Christ comes to us with forgiveness, life, and salvation and that there the Holy Spirit is at work in that powerful Word of salvation to create and sustain faith. The means of grace (Word and Sacraments) are the "horse" that pulls the "cart" of the liturgy.

Within this liturgy we preach Christ and Him crucified as the atonement for the sin of the world. We preach His bodily resurrection from the dead as the way of our justification. It is Christ and His work that is the center of His liturgy among us. What we offer is an alternative to the entertainment-driven "alternative worship" so prevalent today. This is the classical perspective and intention of genuine Lutherans in times past.

What's With That Chanting Stuff?


Association of Lutheran Church Musicians

American Bach Society

Bach Cantatas

Bach Organ Works (downloads)

Article on Johann Pachelbel

Article on Michael Praetorius

Article on Heinrich Schütz

Article on Dietrich Buxtehude

Article on Paul Gerhardt

Article on Lutheran chorales

Articles on Lutheran Hymnody

American Guild of Organists

Pipe Organ Education Project

Associated Pipe Organ Builders of America

Isaiah 6:1-7


The first president of the Missouri Synod worked long and hard to restore a common historic liturgy to the church when so many churches were following their own devices. C. F. W. Walther's efforts received some negative feedback. He responded in a publication that he edited for many years: Der Lutheraner, as in this example, translated from the July 19, 1853, issue, volume 9, number 24, page 163.

Whenever the divine service once again follows the old Evangelical-Lutheran agendas (or church books), it seems that many raise a great cry that it is "Roman Catholic": "Roman Catholic" when the pastor chants "The Lord be with you" and the congregation responds by chanting "and with thy spirit"; "Roman Catholic" when the pastor chants the collect and the blessing and the people respond with a chanted "Amen." Even the simplest Christian can respond to this outcry: "Prove to me that this chanting is contrary to the Word of God, then I too will call it `Roman Catholic' and have nothing more to do with it. However, you cannot prove this to me." If you insist upon calling every element in the divine service "Romish" that has been used by the Roman Catholic Church, it must follow that the reading of the Epistle and Gospel is also "Romish." Indeed, it is mischief to sing or preach in church, for the Roman Church has done this also . . .Those who cry out should remember that the Roman Catholic Church possesses every beautiful song of the old orthodox church. The chants and antiphons and responses were brought into the church long before the false teachings of Rome crept in. This Christian Church since the beginning, even in the Old Testament, has derived great joy from chanting... For more than 1700 years orthodox Christians have participated joyfully in the divine service. Should we, today, carry on by saying that such joyful participation is "Roman Catholic"? God forbid! Therefore, as we continue to hold and to restore our wonderful divine services in places where they have been forgotten, let us boldly confess that our worship forms do not tie us with the modern sects or with the church of Rome; rather, they join us to the one, holy Christian Church that is as old as the world and is built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets.

(audio above)
Evangelical Style, Lutheran Substance in the Way of Worship
Craig Parton Author of The Defense Never Rests

(audio above...)
The Gift of The Lord's Supper
Rev. Greg Alms of Redeemer Lutheran Church-Catawba, NC

The Biblical Roots of the Lutheran Liturgy

Johann Walther: Father of Lutheran Church Music

Gottesdienst: A Quarterly Journal of the Evangelical-Lutheran Liturgy

The Motley Magpie - a traditional Lutheran liturgical journal that was done by pastors within the Wisconsin Synod (WELS)

Lutheran Service Book (CPH, 2006)

Why is the Lutheran Church a Liturgical Church? by David Jay Webber

"Communion Every Sunday: Why?" by Rev. Klemet Preus

"The Balance of Word and Sacrament in the Divine Service" by Rev. James Heiser

Various Audio Downloads of Discussions on the Historic Lutheran Liturgy and a Biblical Understanding of "Worship"

The Peace of the Lord be with you always (John 20:19-20).

More thoughts from C.F.W. Walther:

"We know and firmly hold that the character, the soul of Lutheranism, is not found in outward observances but in the pure doctrine. If a congregation had the most beautiful ceremonies in the very best order, but did not have the pure doctrine, it would be anything but Lutheran. We have from the beginning spoken earnestly of good ceremonies, not as though the important thing were outward forms, but rather to make use of our liberty in these things. For true Lutherans know that although one does not have to have these things (because there is no divine command to have them), one may nevertheless have them because good ceremonies are lovely and beautiful and are not forbidden in the Word of God. Therefore the Lutheran church has not abolished "outward ornaments, candles, altar cloths, statues and similar ornaments," [AP XXIV] but has left them free. The sects proceeded differently because they did not know how to distinguish between what is commanded, forbidden, and left free in the Word of God. We remind only of the mad actions of Carlstadt and of his adherents and followers in Germany and in Switzerland. We on our part have retained the ceremonies and church ornaments in order to prove by our actions that we have a correct understanding of Christian liberty, and know how to conduct ourselves in things which are neither commanded nor forbidden by God.

We refuse to be guided by those who are offended by our church customs. We adhere to them all the more firmly when someone wants to cause us to have a guilty conscience on account of them. The Roman antichristendom enslaves poor consciences by imposing human ordinances on them with the command: "You must keep such and such a thing!"; the sects enslave consciences by forbidding and branding as sin what God has left free. Unfortunately, also many of our Lutheran Christians are still without a true understanding of their liberty. This is demonstrated by their aversion to ceremonies.

It is truly distressing that many of our fellow Christians find the difference between Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism in outward things. It is a pity and dreadful cowardice when a person sacrifices the good ancient church customs to please the deluded American denominations just so they won't accuse us of being Roman Catholic! Indeed! Am I to be afraid of a Methodist, who perverts the saving Word, or be ashamed in the matter of my good cause, and not rather rejoice that they can tell by our ceremonies that I do not belong to them?

It is too bad that such entirely different ceremonies prevail in our Synod, and that no liturgy at all has yet been introduced in many congregations. The prejudice especially against the responsive chanting of pastor and congregations is of course still very great with many people -- this does not, however, alter the fact that it is very foolish. The pious church father Augustine said, "Qui cantat, bis orat--he who sings prays twice."

This finds its application also in the matter of the liturgy. Why should congregations or individuals in the congregation want to retain their prejudices? How foolish that would be! For first of all it is clear from the words of St. Paul (1 Cor. 14:16) that the congregations of his time had a similar custom. It has been the custom in the Lutheran Church for 250 years. It creates a solemn impression on the Christian mind when one is reminded by the solemnity of the divine service that one is in the house of God, in childlike love to their heavenly Father, also give expression to their joy in such a lovely manner.

We are not insisting that there be uniformity in perception or feeling or taste among all believing Christians-neither dare anyone demand that all be minded as he. Nevertheless, it remains true that the Lutheran liturgy distinguishes Lutheran worship from the worship of other churches to such an extent that the houses of worship of the latter look like lecture halls in which the hearers are merely addressed or instructed, while our churches are in truth houses of prayer in which Christians serve the great God publicly before the world.

Uniformity of ceremonies (perhaps according to the Saxon Church order published by the Synod, which is the simplest among the many Lutheran church orders) would be highly desirable because of its usefulness. A poor slave of the pope finds one and same form of service, no matter where he goes, by which he at once recognizes his church.

With us it is different. Whoever comes from Germany without a true understanding of the doctrine often has to look for his church for a long time, and many have already been lost to our church because of this search. How different it would be if the entire Lutheran church had a uniform form of worship! This would, of course, first of all yield only an external advantage, however, one which is by no means unimportant. Has not many a Lutheran already kept his distance from the sects because he saw at the Lord's Supper they broke the bread instead of distributing wafters?

The objection: "What would be the use of uniformity of ceremonies?" was answered with the counter question, "What is the use of a flag on the battlefield? Even though a soldier cannot defeat the enemy with it, he nevertheless sees by the flag where he belongs. We ought not to refuse to walk in the footsteps of our fathers. They were so far removed from being ashamed of the good ceremonies that they publicly confess in the passage quoted: "It is not true that we do away with all such external ornaments"

(C.F.W. Walther, Explanation of Thesis XVIII, D, Adiaphora, of the book The True Visible Church, delivered at St. Paul's Lutheran Church in Indianapolis, Indiana, Beginning August 9, 1871, at the 16th Central District Convention, translated by Fred Kramer, printed in Essays for the Church [CPH: 1992], I:193-194).

A painting of a Lutheran Divine Service

Quotations from our Lutheran Confessions:

1] Falsely are our churches accused of abolishing the Mass; for the Mass is retained among 2] us, and celebrated with the highest reverence. Nearly all the usual ceremonies are also preserved, save that the parts sung in Latin are interspersed here and there with German hymns, which have been added 3] to teach the people. For ceremonies are needed to this end alone that the unlearned 4] be taught [what they need to know of Christ]. And not only has Paul commanded to use in the church a language understood by the people 1 Cor. 14, 2. 9, but it has also been so ordained by man's law. 5] The people are accustomed to partake of the Sacrament together, if any be fit for it, and this also increases the reverence and devotion of public 6] worship. For none are admitted 7] except they be first examined. The people are also advised concerning the dignity and use of the Sacrament, how great consolation it brings anxious consciences, that they may learn to believe God, and to expect and ask of Him all that is good. 8] [In this connection they are also instructed regarding other and false teachings on the Sacrament.] This worship pleases God; such use of the Sacrament nourishes true devotion 9] toward God. It does not, therefore, appear that the Mass is more devoutly celebrated among our adversaries than among us.
+ The Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV,1-9 +

At the outset we must again make the preliminary statement that we 1] do not abolish the Mass, but religiously maintain and defend it. For among us masses are celebrated every Lord's Day and on the other festivals, in which the Sacrament is offered to those who wish to use it, after they have been examined and absolved. And the usual public ceremonies are observed, the series of lessons, of prayers, vestments, and other like things.

+ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV,1 +


From our Lutheran Confessions:

Of the Term Mass.

78] The adversaries also refer us to philology. From the names of the Mass they derive arguments which do not require a long discussion. For even though the Mass be called a sacrifice, it does not follow that it must confer grace ex opere operato, or, when applied on behalf of others, merit for them the remission of sins, etc. 79] Leitourgiva, they say, signifies a sacrifice, and the Greeks call the Mass, liturgy. Why do they here omit the old appellation synaxis, which shows that the Mass was formerly the communion of many? But let us speak of the word liturgy. This word does not properly signify a, sacrifice, but rather the public ministry, and agrees aptly with our belief, namely, that one minister who consecrates tenders the body and blood of the Lord to the rest of the people, just as one minister who preaches tenders the Gospel to the people, as Paul says, 1 Cor. 4, 1: Let a man so account of us as of the ministers of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God, i.e., of the Gospel and the Sacraments. And 2 Cor. 5, 20: We are ambassadors for Christ, as 81] though God did beseech you by us; we pray you in Christ's stead, Be ye reconciled to God. Thus the term leitourgiva agrees aptly with the ministry.

+ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, 78-81 +

See also Luke 22:27; Mark 10:45; Romans 10:17; I Cor. 10:16.

Terms used by Lutherans in other languages:
German - der Gottesdienst or der Hauptgottesdienst
Swedish - Gudstjaenst
Finnish - Jumalanpalvelus

Greek term for liturgy: theia leitourgia

Gloria Christi Lutheran Church (LCMS)

1322 31st Avenue

Greeley, Colorado 80634

(970) 353-2554

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